Circuit debugging methods and experience summary

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Popular science knowledge


1、 Design circuits based on existing conditions and knowledge learned, in order to make progress. Do not copy the circuit diagrams online. Individual references are normal, but do not copy as a whole.
2、 Select chips based on your overall design framework. If the power supply is concerned about whether the general current can be reached, and the operational amplifier is concerned about power supply voltage, distortion, voltage swing rate, bandwidth, etc., according to their own design, there is a margin to choose chips, but the margin should not be too much, otherwise it is a waste. On the contrary, for example, if you want a 10M bandwidth, choose a 10M operational amplifier. The 10M operational amplifier is only achieved in its own laboratory under unique conditions, It is actually difficult to achieve in your circuit.
3、 Design the schematic diagram, and draw each chip according to their official website's data manual. Otherwise, due to inaccurate information, the consequences can be very serious.
4、 When designing PCB diagrams, the main focus is on the packaging of the chip, especially the placement of the chip. If it is a direct insertion, the welding hole must be large, otherwise if multiple layers of boards are made outside and cannot be inserted, it will be unlucky. The wiring layout here is a big subject, and I won't go into detail here. Simply put, the main reason is that the signal flow direction must be a flow direction and cannot be reversed, otherwise the interference generated will be significant; A high current power cord should be thick and short, and the bottom line should not be parallel to the power cord.
5、 After the production is completed, the welding must be careful. If there are multiple power supplies on the board, it is necessary to prepare the power system before working on other functional chips. Otherwise, if you install the functional chip first, the power chip will not work and may cause chip burning. The best thing is that each pin is carefully soldered, and many problems arise from soldering. So after soldering, don't rush, don't rush to power on. First, check that all the pins have been soldered and there is a testing diode gear on the multimeter, which is a good choice.
6、 To test the first level of welding, it is not advisable to test it after all the welding is completed. At that time, it will be difficult to find which level the problem occurs at.
7、 If you follow the above steps, except for high-frequency signals, everything else is basically okay.
What if there is a problem?
Firstly, check the schematic diagram to see if it is correct. There is a mistake here, and any debugging you make is useless.
Secondly, if there are no issues with the schematic, then check if the power supply is normal (be careful not to power it on, the test here is to see if it is connected)
Thirdly, if there are no issues with the power connection, check if there are any issues with other circuit connections
Fourthly, if there are no issues with the circuit connections, then there are two options: either turn on the power and check if the current is normal, and then the voltage regulator will limit the current again; Alternatively, first solder down the chip and recheck whether the power supply is normal (if there is a voltage regulator chip).
Fifth, in summary, circuit errors are nothing more than the following: 1. Principle errors 2. Power supply errors 3. Connection errors 4. Severe interference (at high frequencies) with board placement issues. Please re install the board.

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